Temperature, as a primary and critical environmental parameter, is the temperature range inside which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some digital circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature performs a pivotal position in experimentation and engineering, and a wide range of methods have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific analysis and engineering purposes.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to determine on a temperature sensor?

How to maintain up the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring gadget. It converts heat (temperature) into a readable kind similar to an electrical signal corresponding to current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in trade zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic equipment

Food and beverage industry

Pharmaceutical industry

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by means of an electrical sign. They include two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature changes. Temperature sensor work is predicated on measuring the voltage across the terminals of a diode. As the voltage will increase, the temperature increases accordingly, at which point there is a lower in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
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Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that have to be in direct contact with the object to be measured in order to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize different bodily properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, current, and so on.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can reflect the temperature of the object to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly used in industrial, automotive, and on a regular basis family functions. Because they are self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have fast response instances, and may operate over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two completely different metallic wires wound together to supply a voltage change between the 2 metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are created from a variety of different materials, permitting temperature sensors to measure completely different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all other thermocouples are also designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, just like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance modifications with temperature. They are usually made of a polymer or ceramic coated with a glass floor, which is why they’re cheaper and less correct than RTDs. There are two major types of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical type and are characterised by a lower in resistance as the temperature will increase. This is as a result of at larger temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor materials increases, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working vary of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and standard thermistors have an operating range as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer models with a two-wire technique with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to change with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature range. The corresponding temperature could be decided by measuring the resistance.RTDs are usually made from pure metals, especially platinum, which has excellent stability and linearity over a big temperature vary.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief sufficient that resistance does not have an effect on accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration provides an RTD probe to carry the excitation current, thus providing a approach to get rid of line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate pressure and sense leads. This is essentially the most accurate configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher worth

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for present sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are often integrated into integrated circuits (ICs). Two equivalent diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature adjustments. IC sensors have a linear response, but they’ve the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is because ICs have the slowest response over a slender temperature range (- -70 °C to a hundred and fifty °C).
There are two types of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature utilizing the physical properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an external transistor. The transistor is situated away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that automatically adjusts the temperature, often based mostly on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the surroundings. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls under a set point, the thermostat activates or shuts down heating or cooling gear to maintain the specified temperature.
There are many types of thermostats out there, together with knob-type, digital, programmable, and sensible thermostats to satisfy the needs of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical system for measuring temperature that takes benefit of the reality that two different metals have totally different coefficients of thermal growth. When the temperature adjustments, the two metals in the bimetal expand or contract at totally different rates. Since the two metals are tightly bound collectively, this difference causes the whole bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made right into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature adjustments, the degree of bimetal bending modifications, and this change could be learn instantly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the goal floor. They depend on the thermal power radiated by the thing to measure temperature, the most typical kind being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the intensity of infrared radiation emitted by a goal object to find out its temperature. They are perfect for use when an object is shifting or the temperature is too high or too low, as they do not need to come into contact with the thing itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are additionally infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the floor of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in all kinds of industrial and scientific functions, together with temperature management of digital devices, monitoring of chemical reactions, food quality management, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of business devices

How to determine on a temperature sensor?

Measuring range: Different temperature sensors have different measuring ranges. First determine the temperature range that needs to be measured, and choose a sensor that may meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another essential choice factor for temperature sensors. Different sensor varieties have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have greater accuracies, whereas thermocouples have decrease accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working surroundings, corresponding to humidity, corrosive substances, excessive pressure and other environmental conditions.
Application: Application situations require a quick response to temperature adjustments, so it may be very important select a sensor with a fast response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are provided with 316 stainless-steel rods and inner wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head kinds can be found in two stem sorts: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the bottom of the thermocouple sleeve for optimum thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are good for liquid functions.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze knowledge

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is dependent upon your utility and industry, in case you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, feel free to contact Apure professional and technical group to provide a solution. We additionally supply devices for water high quality analysis, flow meters, level measurement, stress measurement, ozone generators and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
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Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of stage measurement transmitters
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Temperature, as a fundamental and critical environmental parameter, is the temperature range within which many chemical reactions and biological processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some digital circuits is controlled by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature performs a pivotal position in experimentation and engineering, and quite so much of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key features of scientific analysis and engineering functions.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to determine on a temperature sensor?

How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring system. It converts warmth (temperature) into a readable type corresponding to an electrical signal similar to current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument shut up in trade zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic tools

Food and beverage industry

Pharmaceutical trade

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by means of an electrical signal. diaphragm seal comprise two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature modifications. Temperature sensor work relies on measuring the voltage throughout the terminals of a diode. As the voltage increases, the temperature increases accordingly, at which level there is a decrease in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that must be in direct contact with the thing to be measured in order to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors make the most of completely different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, present, etc.) for temperature measurement, and their adjustments can reflect the temperature of the thing to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly used in industrial, automotive, and on an everyday basis household purposes. Because they are self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have fast response occasions, and might function over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two totally different metallic wires wound collectively to supply a voltage change between the 2 metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are produced from a selection of different supplies, permitting temperature sensors to measure completely different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The most commonly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are also designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, much like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance adjustments with temperature. They are often made from a polymer or ceramic coated with a glass surface, which is why they’re cheaper and fewer correct than RTDs. There are two main forms of thermistors: optimistic temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most common kind and are characterized by a lower in resistance as the temperature increases. This is as a end result of at greater temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) within the semiconductor materials will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working range of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and commonplace thermistors have an working range as high as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer items with a two-wire method with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the principle of measuring temperature by utilizing the property of resistance to vary with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature range. The corresponding temperature may be decided by measuring the resistance.RTDs are normally made of pure metals, particularly platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a large temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are short sufficient that resistance doesn’t affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to hold the excitation current, thus providing a way to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate drive and sense leads. This is probably the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher price

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for present sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are normally built-in into built-in circuits (ICs). Two equivalent diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature changes. IC sensors have a linear response, however they’ve the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a end result of ICs have the slowest response over a narrow temperature range (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two forms of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature utilizing the physical properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an external transistor. The transistor is located away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a device that automatically adjusts the temperature, usually primarily based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the setting. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set level, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling gear to keep up the desired temperature.
There are many forms of thermostats available, including knob-type, digital, programmable, and good thermostats to meet the needs of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical system for measuring temperature that takes advantage of the fact that two different metals have completely different coefficients of thermal growth. When the temperature modifications, the two metals in the bimetal increase or contract at totally different rates. Since the 2 metals are tightly certain together, this difference causes the complete bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made right into a spiral or curved shape. As the temperature modifications, the diploma of bimetal bending changes, and this change can be learn instantly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object with out direct contact with the target surface. They rely on the thermal power radiated by the item to measure temperature, the commonest type being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to discover out its temperature. They are good for use when an object is shifting or the temperature is simply too excessive or too low, as they do not need to come into contact with the item itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are additionally infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the floor of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in all kinds of industrial and scientific functions, together with temperature control of digital devices, monitoring of chemical reactions, meals quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of commercial devices

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring vary: Different temperature sensors have completely different measuring ranges. First decide the temperature vary that needs to be measured, and choose a sensor that may meet this range.
Accuracy: Accuracy is one other important selection factor for temperature sensors. Different sensor sorts have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have larger accuracies, whereas thermocouples have lower accuracies.
เพรสเชอร์เกจ : Temperature sensors are affected by their operating surroundings, corresponding to humidity, corrosive substances, excessive pressure and other environmental conditions.
Application: Application eventualities require a fast response to temperature changes, so it is important to select a sensor with a quick response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are equipped with 316 stainless-steel rods and inside wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types are available in two stem varieties: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the bottom of the thermocouple sleeve for max thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are good for liquid purposes.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid excessive environments

Record and analyze data

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is determined by your utility and business, when you have any questions on temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, be at liberty to contact Apure professional and technical group to supply a solution. We also supply instruments for water quality analysis, flow meters, level measurement, pressure measurement, ozone mills and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of degree measurement transmitters