Water is present in all places in mining and its management varies according to its role in the mining processes. In a recent in-depth article by pumps major KSB, the company outlines how this in turn influences the number of technologies utilized in pumping water. “Alongside the secure provide and restoration of course of water is the challenge of eradicating ground water. Process water and groundwater contain abrasive and corrosive components in varying portions which have an antagonistic affect on pump performance and life. Working conditions, remote places, various temperature ranges and the lack of electrical power are additionally extremely influential elements.”
The copper mines in Chile and the iron ore mines in Western Australia may be many hundreds of miles aside, but these mining operations nonetheless require dewatering and the safe disposal of doubtless contaminated water. “The similar could be said of the coal mines of Mozambique and the silver mines of Mexico. What they all have in widespread is a requirement for environment friendly and effective water and slurry pumps. Well-matched solutions assist to maximise the longevity and efficiency of the system and also optimise cost-performance ratios, all attributes fulfilled by KSB’s Hard Rock Mining Division.”
เกจวัดแรงดันออกซิเจน changing face of mining
The search for more uncommon and treasured minerals and metals has opened up mining in countries and areas where previously the business was small scale or non-existent. Consequently, mining firms and tools manufacturers have needed to develop new techniques and products. And with the most important mining corporations having operations in many international places, turning into a most popular gear supplier is essential. “The dewatering market is slowly shifting from a pure CAPEX viewpoint to an increasingly OPEX perspective,” stories Brett Lewis, Mining Manager at KSB Australia. “This is especially true for the large mines that notice that poorly designed tools that often fails, causes a significant increase in alternative and servicing cost. Some mining companies are now committing to a carbon impartial target in the next 20 to 30 years, so are focussing on excessive effectivity tools. They want to section out diesel reliance by connecting most bores to their local electrical grid.”
KSB says it is conscious that mining corporations are recording pump performance and are accumulating information to match brands and better rank their qualities or deficiencies. “This is sweet information for KSB as the company is dedicated to delivering excessive reliability and efficiency pumps, so helping to reduce the carbon footprint of mining dewatering operations.
Is there a ‘one-fits-all’ pump solution?
KSB says the reply to this could be a resounding ‘no’, but “by sharing experiences between workplaces and likewise incessantly working with the identical worldwide mining firms, KSB has been in a place to develop appropriate solutions. KSB’s involvement within the iron ore industries in Brazil and Australia reveal two different approaches to dewatering, both employing vertical multi-stage pumps.”
In Brazil’s Minas Gerais State open pit iron ore mines excessive floor water, monsoons and underground lakes are issues. To preserve steady production water needs to be pumped to a dewatering lake which has a dynamic water level that have to be raised two or 3 times a 12 months. KSB Brazil’s answer is a floating station fitted with KSB vertical turbine B pumps positioned over a pontoon (Fig.1). The pontoon rises and falls with adjustments within the water stage so there isn’t a need for the pumps to be repositioned. This results in cost-savings to the shopper. After 20 successful years it has turn into the standard for this sort of gear in South America.
“The floating station supporting the pumps over the pontoon delivers the move price requested by the customer,” explains Jardel Ribeiro, Sales Manager, KSB Brazil. “Sometimes the pumps, high power motors and associated gear results in the scale of the floating station being increased. Stabilizing tools that weighs more than 200 t requires plenty of planning, along with the challenge of building a system in such a remote area.”
Boreholes in Australia
In the Pilbara Region of Western Australia iron ore is mined in several places around the Chichester hub zone, an space between 5 and 9 km wide and 80 km long. The mineral deposit sits between ninety m and 117 m under the floor. With the groundwater and water desk often replenished in moist seasons and cyclones adding to the inundation, greater than 75% of the iron ore is beneath the water desk. If an extreme quantity of water mixes with iron ore, it becomes low grade and unsuitable for export, which results in huge revenue losses. Also, floor dewatering processes are extremely expensive if the water could be very excessive.
The accepted dewatering course of throughout the area is to pump the water out by way of boreholes. However, this is not without its challenges. High water temperatures and excessive salinity lead to extreme corrosion, while iron bacteria can grow on motors which prevent environment friendly motor cooling. The presence of gas is a constant threat in some areas as this causes fuel lock on the impellers leading to heavy vibrations, which places an excellent strain on the motor, lack of circulate fee and motor failure.
This signifies that standard off-the-shelf merchandise aren’t always appropriate and the incidence of failures is high. Typically, most bore pumps fail within 12 months, and typically only a few weeks. At its Hope Valley facility in Western Australia, KSB provides mine operators with its UPA multistage borehole pump, customised to face up to website circumstances. Although a costlier product than its competitors, the UPA has been shown to ship a considerably longer working life and decreased costs of possession. KSB’s proprietary technology that inhibits the growth of iron micro organism makes the UPA a winner.
Trailer mounted models
In Africa the environment and minerals being mined require progressive approaches to dewatering. In the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, residence to a number of open reduce and underground copper mines wet seasons wreak flooding havoc. Here, KSB is delivering several different pumping solutions involving both UPA Z borehole pumps and surface-mounted Omega pumps. “To forestall mining operations from being shut down, a quick localised response is required,” says Rob Bond, Area Manager Mining-Sub-Saharan Africa. “Our solution has been to produce Omega pumps mounted on tough terrain trailers. We provide an entire package deal made up of the pump, engine/motor, couplings, gearbox, hydraulic drives and auxiliary gear including vacuum pump, management panels, screens and so on that delivers high head pumping.”
A comparable solution can be offered for the open cast Moatize coal mine in Mozambique where the water levels should remain low for continuous manufacturing reliability. Whilst borehole pumps provide good reliability on a continuing basis, when the rainy season starts, extra resources are in demand KSB SA offers skid-mounted Omega items. To date, KSB SA has supplied 152 units and all are working reliably.
Latin America
In Mexico’s Zacatecas silver mines underground water is a constant problem. According to Roberto Valenzuela, Sales Manager Mining KSB Mexico, the water accommodates solid particles so the high stress encapsulated UPA borehole pumps must be wear-resistant for long run efficiency. Because the dewatering pumps work at a high pace, the impellers and the wear and tear ring can undergo from untimely put on. Using Multitec horizontal multistage pumps with KSB’s C6 normal chrome coating, put on is greatly minimised. “We have had pumps operating on this mine for over two years without the impellers being modified,” says Roberto Valenzuela. “It is an answer that no competitor provides, and provides value for the client via lowered maintenance, spare parts and higher mining uptime.”
In Chile’s Atacama Desert copper and gold is mined at altitudes ranging between 2,000 m and 4,500 m. Remote sites, mine depths and the unavailability of electrical energy needed to drive excessive capacity pumps complicate dewatering. High volumes of water contaminated by minerals can delay drilling and blasting and lead to environmental pollution. KSB Chile has met these challenges by supplying encapsulated borehole pumps and cantilevered Etanorm pumps, pushed by diesel motors.
“Our customers require high-pressure pumps in a modular configuration that can be moved with the expansion of the open pit,” comments Patricio Araya, Mining Head KSB Chile. “The solution is to use horizontally positioned borehole pumps with a particular configuration for sand filters encased in a stress shroud. This gives the customer flexibility and flexibility as a end result of the tools is compact, develops excessive pressures and is simple to move across the web site.
To accommodate rising flows and discharge stress pumps are configured in collection and in parallel particularly for the client’s requirements. Being coupled to diesel engines permits steady, autonomous operation in locations without electrical energy for between 12 and 24 hours without refuelling. Vertical Etanorm pumps and cantilever-type UPA pumps put in on a raft enabling them to deal with the buildup of water contained in the mine, eliminating elements similar to unfavorable suction head at high altitudes. KSB gear for mine drainage is supplied in commonplace variations, with variations for rafts or properly pumps put in in stress jackets. Having viable options for dewatering adds worth to the shoppers operations and can be necessary as a result of each year minerals are found at deeper ranges.
Innovation in Indonesia
Indonesia is likely certainly one of the world’s largest exporters of thermal coal, and likewise a serious participant in copper, gold, tin, bauxite, and nickel. Here KSB pumps are acknowledged for his or her excellent capacity to perform in severe open pit mine websites. Its growth of dewatering and dredge pump units (DnD), as an answer for mining functions, particularly for open-pit mine sites is one instance of KSB’ commitment to steady product improvement and growth. To date, more than 260 DnD pumps with GWI® LCC and LSA pumps have been installed in mines throughout Indonesia and South East Asia. In 2013, KSB Indonesia launched a brand new model, the DnD Cruiser with enhancements requested by prospects.
KSB builds the whole diesel driven pump unit on a barge, full with fuel tank, vacuum pump, control panel etc, and ships them on trailers for easy commissioning at web site. Because monsoon rains are seasonal dewatering is also a seasonal activity and this implies pumps can stand idle for a number of months in the course of the dry periods. Recognising this example, KSB has introduced a rental programme, whereby the pumps are supplied fully-kitted out according to the customer’s requirements. By not having to purchase the pump units, customers are relieved of the prices of possession and know that when they require models they come prepared for operation.
KSB’s mine dewatering systems enable the safe and environment friendly lowering of groundwater in open pit dewatering, underground drainage and borehole drainage functions. Regardless of a mine’s location, the type of mining operation being carried out, the geological and the aggressive and corrosive nature of the water, KSB has fluid handling applied sciences that will fit all eventualities. This scenario has come about by way of the cross-fertilisation of concepts, technologies and experiences gained over many many years by our corporations all over the world, supported by in depth funding in analysis and improvement. Wherever a pumping answer is required, we will deliver a co-ordinated response to the table.