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Mining is amongst the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots again to these prehistoric days when somebody grabbed a digging instrument and commenced burrowing into the ground. In the many millennia since, mining has grown into one of the world’s most necessary and widespread commercial enterprises, with operations unfold throughout the globe whereas tasked with recovering an nearly inexhaustible listing of useful commodities.
In reality, according to the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined merchandise were recovered in 2018, up from 11.three billion metric tons in 2000 and nearly double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian nations accounted for 58 % of the 2018 manufacturing, with North America second at 15.1 p.c, followed by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.8 percent), Latin America (6.3 percent), and Africa (5.3 percent). Individually, pressure gauge octa (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) were essentially the most prolific producers, with their whole fifty one.1 percent of production more than the relaxation of the world combined.
This means that the mining industry is a robust one, with solid growth expected to continue within the coming years in many areas of the world. It also implies that mining operations will continue to depend on pumping technologies that offer sturdy, reliable, and protected service in numerous crucial liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why constructive displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps may be your best option for a lot of of these applications.
THE CHALLENGE

While mining might appear to be nothing greater than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy equipment or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to access from above—there are, actually, many advanced and sometimes delicate operations that must be carried out properly if the mining operation is to perform at its highest stage of efficiency.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping technology that can operate reliably in harsh and distant areas, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive products, and likewise one which is ready to be maintained and repaired simply so downtime is lessened. The pumps should also be gentle sufficient to be manually moved from location to location inside the mine itself.
For many years, a preferred choice for use in these conditions was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are in a place to create the excessive circulate rates which would possibly be required, they’ve a quantity of operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining applications: an incapability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to prevent leaks; particular linings wanted to handle solids; excessive motor speeds of up to 1,800 rpm; and relatively excessive maintenance requirements and costs, particularly when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another well-liked selection has been the progressive cavity pump, but, like centrifugal pumps, they’ve a number of operational shortcomings. These embrace an incapability to consistently deal with liquids with high levels of abrasives, which leads to increased upkeep costs, put on on costly stators and rotors that will finally have to be changed, and overall larger buy, working, and repair/replacement costs.
Here are some of the particular liquid-transfer operations that happen in a mine and the ways that some pump technologies can fall short in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing extra produced water from the mine is a crucial 24/7/365 operation and the water that is recovered is usually stuffed with particulates that can be as large as 0.12 to zero.sixteen inches in dimension. If used in this application, centrifugal pumps require special supplies of development, which can be value prohibitive, to protect in opposition to impeller put on caused by the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are additionally not dry-run succesful, which adversely impacts their level of efficiency on this utility.
General service: For common liquid-handling functions, you need an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip traces, operate at low speeds while still delivering excessive move rates, and be simple to maintain up and repair. Centrifugal pumps simply do not possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted parts of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This typically demands a need to make use of particular mechanical seals, which may lead to exorbitant maintenance, restore, and substitute costs.
Press filter: Press filters are used to scrub the liquids which would possibly be produced within the mines and, again, centrifugal pumps can fall brief in this application as a end result of the solid-laden liquid can damage the pump’s internals until special, more expensive materials of construction or linings are used. Also, the character of press-filter operation creates a powerful discharge-pressure variation that can pressure the centrifugal pump to operate away from its best effectivity level (BEP), resulting in excessive vibration and radial loads that can lead to shortened service life. A resolution to this is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, however these are expensive and can negatively affect the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product switch: This comes in all forms in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport trucks with new and used oil for the heavy machinery, recent and fouled water, and any chemical compounds which might be required. In every instance, there is the risk that the pump will be pressured to run dry as the truck or storage vessel is emptied, while discharge-pressure variation can even generate excessive vibration and radial loads. As beforehand illustrated, centrifugal pumps cannot run dry, in order that they want safety from this situation or the addition of special seals. However, all of those upgrades still cannot totally protect against a catastrophic failure.
THE SOLUTION

While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have confirmed to not be the most effective resolution in many liquid-handling applications in mining, one pump know-how that has proven to be an optimum alternative is AODD—in phrases of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and maintenance, and security for mining personnel and the environment.
AODD pumps are able to carry out successfully in mining purposes as a outcome of their technique of operation allows them to simply handle variable flow charges and pressures, whereas being dry-run and line-stripping capable, and nimble sufficient to transfer liquids that are shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, as nicely as slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and different particulates.
The simple design of the AODD pump options few transferring components and comparably lower speeds than other pump technologies, which improves reliability and simplifies upkeep, whereas the pump’s seal-less building leads to fewer leaks, which is a important consideration when dealing with the numerous hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids which would possibly be prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps can be found in each steel (most generally aluminum, ductile iron and forged iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, whereas a massive selection of elastomers can be used in the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility issues.
A broad number of AODD pump configurations present operational flexibility that can also result in optimized efficiency at many ranges. The ability to characteristic AODD pumps in a extensive range of functions, from primary common use to delicate chemical-handling processes, allows operators to extra cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps may additionally be less expensive to operate, especially these models which would possibly be outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most elementary, AODD pumps excel in the typical rugged and harsh operating circumstances discovered within the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents along with corresponding downtime and restore costs.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping precept sixty-five years ago, has been devoted to growing applied sciences that meet the needs of mining operations. Today, Wilden offers three AODD pump models which are built to excel in mining purposes, available in ductile iron, forged iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar materials of construction:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which characteristic a bolted configuration, have been constructed for use in purposes that require the dealing with of liquids featuring massive solids. The Brahma pumps have a unique top-inlet/bottom-discharge flow orientation and flap valves that allow the passage of enormous solids with no danger that damage will happen as a result of product entrapment or the settling of solids within the pump’s internal move paths. Brahma pumps can be found in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to cut back air consumption by up to 60 p.c. The T810 and T1510 models are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate vary for the 4 Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures as much as a hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling functionality ranging from 2 to 3 inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps characteristic a clamped design with carrying handles for light-weight portability. Their design features giant internal clearances and flow-through paths for straightforward passage of large solids with no probability for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve assembly further enables solids passage, whereas a polyurethane display screen base at the inlet increases the pump’s sturdiness. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) models are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps that includes the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most robust ADS design for the toughest environments. Flow charges amongst the six models vary from 57 gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures up to one hundred twenty five psi. Solids sizes that can be handled range from 1/2 to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps function clamped or bolted configuration. Their design options totally different chamber supplies, together with steel and plastics, even Kynar, which is able to dealing with excessive levels of abrasive materials. The Pro-Flo SHIFT can additionally be probably the most efficient AODD pump out there, capable of reducing as much as 60 p.c air consumption. This makes it the best option for dealing with corrosive and abrasive products in mining processes. The pumps have a product range that goes from 1.5 to 3 inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
ไดอะแฟรม ซีล of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are in a place to be outfitted with a extensive selection of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a various array of supplies, corresponding to Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm range offers customers the widest number of diaphragms on the market, all of that are capable of providing prolonged mean time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with decreased upkeep, restore, and substitute prices.
All of these capabilities make AODD pumps the ideal choice for the aforementioned widespread liquid-handling applications in mining: dewatering, basic service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and day by day product transfer.
CONCLUSION

In abstract, Wilden AODD pumps are the most fitted choice for mining applications as a outcome of they provide appreciable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead functionality, along with elevated operational security and a discount in maintenance/repair costs that may be incurred by pumps that aren’t designed to handle abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps additionally outperform other AODD technologies in different important ways: simple design with the lowest number of parts for quicker, less complicated, and safer repairs and the bottom number of spare elements to inventory; recent improvements in materials of building that increase the pump’s MTBF; and improved effectivity through the use of the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which in the end leads to quicker product transfer with decrease air consumption. Wilden additionally continues to innovate by way of the development of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, both of which enhance service life and safety whereas not compromising the handling of difficult liquids.
FOR MORE INFORMATION

Fernando Meneses is the regional supervisor North Latin America for Wilden, a leading manufacturer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He can be reached at fernando.meneses@psgdover.com. Wilden is a product brand of PSG®, a Dover firm. PSG is comprised of several leading pump corporations, including Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For more info, visit www.wildenpump.com or www.psgdover.com.
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